We work with insurers, hospitals, physician groups, and other providers, as well as their counsel. Our experts and staff possess a deep knowledge of the regulatory framework and an understanding of the complex network of entities involved in the provision and coverage of healthcare.

Our extensive network includes top experts from academia and industry.

Our extensive network includes top experts from academia and industry.

Gautam Gowrisankaran

Professor of Economics,
Columbia University;
Senior Advisor, Cornerstone Research

Gautam Gowrisankaran is an expert in industrial organization, healthcare economics, and energy and environmental economics. Professor Gowrisankaran has analyzed issues of market definition and market power, the competitive effects of mergers, and claims of attempted monopolization. He has also addressed allegations of tying, foreclosure, and other exclusionary practices arising in such industries as healthcare, consumer goods, high-tech products, payment services, and transportation.

An experienced expert witness, Professor Gowrisankaran has been retained by federal and state agencies as well as by private clients in numerous high-profile mergers, antitrust litigation matters, and consumer class actions. His trial testimony includes United States et al. v. UnitedHealth Group Inc. and Change Healthcare Inc.; Sidibe v. Sutter Health; In re: Purdue Pharma L.P. et al.; and Federal Trade Commission v. Hackensack Meridian Health Inc. and Englewood Healthcare Foundation. He has consulted to the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice on matters involving airlines and mergers in the healthcare space.

In his research, Professor Gowrisankaran conducts both theoretical and empirical studies of topics related to industrial organization and competition. He has particular expertise in industries that are highly regulated and exhibit rapid technological change, such as healthcare and energy, as well as markets in which prices are negotiated.

One focus of his recent research is energy, including renewable energy generation and environmental regulation. Professor Gowrisankaran has also analyzed a variety of issues in healthcare markets, such as hospital competition, the impact of countervailing market power, hospital quality, and the price impact of hospital mergers. He has also analyzed competition issues in markets involving health insurance and accountable care organizations (ACOs).

A prolific author, Professor Gowrisankaran has published research in leading economics journals, including the American Economic Review, Econometrica, and the Journal of Political Economy. He has served on the editorial boards of several academic journals, including the American Economic Review and the RAND Journal of Economics. In addition, Professor Gowrisankaran has written analyses for a legal audience, including in the Antitrust Law Journal. He has been honored with best paper awards and recognized by Who’s Who Legal as a leading competition economist.

Global Competition Review recognized Professor Gowrisankaran in its inaugural list of the world’s most important antitrust academics. He was also honored in Lexology’s 2022 Client Choice list.

Prior to joining the faculty at Columbia, Professor Gowrisankaran was a tenured professor of economics and the Peter and Nancy Salter Chair in Healthcare Management at the University of Arizona. He has held visiting academic appointments at Northwestern University, the University of Chicago, Yale University, and Harvard University, among others.

Professor Gowrisankaran serves on the U.S. Congressional Budget Office Health Advisory Panel. He is a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) and a research fellow at the Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR).

Our extensive network includes top experts from academia and industry.

Laurence C. Baker

Bing Professor of Human Biology, Stanford University;
Associate Chair for Education, Department of Health Policy,
Stanford School of Medicine;
Senior Fellow, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research,
Stanford University;
Senior Advisor, Cornerstone Research

Laurence Baker is an expert in the areas of antitrust, health insurance markets, medical services pricing, and the effects of regulation on healthcare markets. He has consulted and testified on matters related to healthcare prices and costs, as well as competition issues, including mergers between hospitals and physician groups, alleged exclusionary contracting practices, and alleged collusive labor agreements.

Professor Baker’s experience includes healthcare financing issues, provider payment systems, class certification, and damages. In the health insurance arena, he has expertise in private insurance, Medicare, Medicare Advantage, and Medicaid. Professor Baker has also served as an expert in life sciences matters involving antitrust and intellectual property issues.

In his research, Professor Baker has examined the relationship between physician practice characteristics and competition and healthcare delivery, prices, and outcomes. He has also studied the effects of managed care insurance practices on the healthcare system; the impact of regulation on healthcare markets; the determinants and results of technological change in medicine; and patient safety in U.S. hospitals. In addition, Professor Baker has worked on issues related to physicians’ incomes and career choices, and analyzed how the Internet and e-mail influence healthcare delivery and outcomes.

He was awarded the ASHEcon Medal for his significant contributions to the field of health economics, and has twice been honored for excellence in teaching. Professor Baker is a fellow at the Stanford Center for Health Policy/Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research. His publications include articles in JAMA—The Journal of the American Medical AssociationHealth Services Research, and Health Affairs.

Our extensive network includes top experts from academia and industry.

Erin Trish

Associate Professor,
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Economics, School of Pharmacy,
Co-Director, Leonard D. Schaeffer Center for Health Policy and Economics,
University of Southern California

Erin Trish is an expert on matters at the intersection of public policy and healthcare markets. She assesses the effect of healthcare regulation and policy on healthcare markets, participants, and outcomes.

Professor Trish has extensive knowledge of mainstream government health programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. She is also an expert on specialized federal and state healthcare and data initiatives, including Meaningful Use certification and evolving price transparency mandates. Professor Trish applies this expertise to matters involving provider and payor disputes, risk adjustment, private and out-of-network reimbursement, electronic health records (EHR), and surprise billing.

As an expert witness, Professor Trish has testified at arbitration, and in antitrust litigation involving health insurance markets. She has also testified in the California State Assembly. She has presented her research at numerous federal agencies, including the Federal Trade Commission, the Center for Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, the Congressional Budget Office, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.

Professor Trish’s research has addressed such topics as insurance premiums, prescription drug spending, healthcare market concentration, health plan benefits, and healthcare reform. She has won several research awards, notably the Seema S. Sonnad Emerging Leader in Managed Care Research Award, which recognizes early achievements in the field and potential for exceptional long-term contributions.

Professor Trish has published in leading health policy, health economics, and medical journals. Her work has appeared in the New England Journal of MedicineHealth Affairs, the American Journal of Managed Care, and the Journal of Health Economics, among others.

At USC, Professor Trish teaches executive-level courses in health policy and management at the Marshall School of Business. She also serves as a nonresident fellow in economic studies at the Brookings Institution and as a scholar with the USC-Brookings Schaeffer Initiative for Health Policy.

Our extensive network includes top experts from academia and industry.

M. Kate Bundorf

J. Alexander McMahon Distinguished Professor of Health Policy and Management,
Sanford School of Public Policy,
Core Faculty Member, Duke-Margolis Center for Health Policy,
Duke University

Kate Bundorf is an expert on health insurance markets, and the economics of healthcare systems and healthcare delivery. In these contexts, Professor Bundorf has analyzed the determinants and effects of consumer choices, the impact of regulation, the interaction of public and private systems, incentives for insurers to improve healthcare quality, and the organization of provider markets. Her expertise extends to Medicare Advantage and features of the Affordable Care Act, such as risk adjustment, risk corridors, and reinsurance. She has served as an expert witness on healthcare matters, including cases with allegations of False Claims Act violations, reimbursement disputes. She has testified at deposition.

Professor Bundorf is a faculty research fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) and a board member of the Center for Health and Economy.

Her honors include the Annual Health Care Research Award from the National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation, and selection as a Fulbright Scholar.

Professor Bundorf’s research has been published in leading economics and health policy journals. She is a coeditor of the Journal of Health Economics and the International Journal of Health Economics and Management; and serves on the editorial boards of the the American Journal of Health Economics, and Health Services Research.

Prior to joining the faculty at Duke, Professor Bundorf was an associate professor of health research and policy at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Healthcare Capabilities

Clients draw on our expertise in competition issues involving the healthcare sector, including hospitals and insurance providers. Our staff and experts address allegations of:

  • Predatory and discriminatory pricing
  • Price fixing by physicians’ associations or hospitals
  • Price fixing of healthcare workers’ wages
  • Exclusionary practices
  • Monopolization

In our analyses, we define relevant markets, assessing existing market power and determining the competitive effects of mergers and acquisitions as well as allegedly anticompetitive behavior involving:

  • Hospital systems
  • Outpatient care facilities
  • Physician services
  • Insurers

When healthcare organizations merge, complicated issues arise among patients, providers, and insurers. Such mergers involve complex empirical analyses to assess competitive effects, including questions related to bargaining, quality of care, risk-sharing, and efficiencies.

Our staff and experts have experience in a variety of reimbursement-related matters on issues of sampling, liability, and damages. These cases include private reimbursement disputes between payors and healthcare providers, as well as False Claims Act, Anti-Kickback Statute, and other government audit and contracting matters brought against healthcare providers.

Our experience includes:

  • Complex statistical sampling from a large number of claims and extrapolation of sample results to assess liability and damages issues
  • Reimbursement disputes between providers and payors, including analysis of alleged unnecessary treatment and upcoding, and estimation of damages
  • Analysis of usual and customary reimbursement rates for out-of-network providers
  • False Claims Act and government audit matters involving alleged overpayments in Medicare Fee-for-Service, Medicare Advantage, and Medicaid
  • False Claims Act matters involving false advertising allegations
  • Fair market value analysis of payments for products and services, per the Anti-Kickback Statute
  • Government contracting matters related to the Affordable Care Act, including risk-adjustment, risk corridors, and reinsurance
  • Waiver of patient coinsurance and co-payments

We partner with physicians and medical billing experts to assess and integrate their opinions of medical necessity and claims coding into our damages and liability analyses.

Cornerstone Research provides class certification analyses in a wide range of healthcare cases, including antitrust and competition, managed care contracting, coverage disputes, reimbursement practices, and disputes related to alleged “surcharge fees” and “surprise medical billing.” Clients also seek our expertise in class certification analyses for cases involving claims of product liability, misrepresentation, and false advertising pertaining to medical institutions and healthcare products. We have addressed questions of common proof and common impact as well as questions of ascertainability and numerosity.

In addressing these questions, we combine our extensive knowledge of the complexities and unique characteristics of the healthcare markets (including pricing and payment complexity, patient heterogeneity, and provider-payor interactions) and our expertise with advanced empirical and statistical techniques.

Our recent experience includes:

  • Evaluation of alleged harm resulting from changes in the retiree healthcare benefits of a proposed class.
  • Analysis of charges to a proposed class of uninsured emergency room patients, allegedly in excess of the “reasonable value” of the services provided.
  • Assessment of ascertainability of the members of a proposed class and the alleged impact on patient cost sharing.

Clients rely on our decades of experience with complex cases requiring data management, integration, sampling, digitization, production, and analysis, including advanced empirical modeling and statistical techniques. Many healthcare matters involve analyzing large medical claims databases.

Cornerstone Research regularly analyzes databases containing hundreds of billions of records. We have the staff expertise and state-of-the-art, secure computing facilities to quickly and efficiently handle large volumes of sensitive healthcare data. This includes experience with data masking and anonymization as well as applying AI and machine learning to create structured data through supervised record linkage, resolving distinct entries to a common entity. We also have experience implementing state-of-the-art econometric techniques utilizing algorithmic methods.

Cornerstone Research’s expertise includes major price and claims databases, such as MarketScan, FAIR Health, and Medicare, as well as insurer-specific claims datasets, internal provider billing systems, Medicaid data, and other large discharge databases.

Featured Cases

Featured Publications

9 March 2023

Cornerstone Research Shortlisted for 2023 GCR Awards

Global Competition Review recognizes firm professionals and affiliated expert for work in $1.2 billion healthcare antitrust class action.

31 May 2022

Evolving Antitrust Analysis of Hospital Mergers

The authors discuss how differences between patient and insurer perspectives could create "cross-market" effects.

19 May 2022

Intersection of Intellectual Property and Competition Policy in Recent Cases

The authors discuss high-profile cases in the EU and US that concern IP rights and competition policy.

13 April 2021

Reassessing the Value of Minimally Invasive Technologies in the Era of COVID-19

Darius Lakdawalla of the University of Southern California analyzes why the COVID-19 pandemic presents an opportunity to rethink the use of minimal...

25 March 2021

M. Kate Bundorf Joins Duke University

Professor Bundorf is the S. Malcolm Gillis Distinguished Professor of Public Policy.

13 August 2020

Vertical Merger Guidelines Overlook Health Care Co. Issues

The authors discuss how the agencies’ Vertical Merger Guidelines analyze non-horizontal mergers, specifically in the healthcare industry.

27 July 2020

Expectations for Healthcare Mergers During the Pandemic

The authors consider likely developments in healthcare mergers and challenges particular to the COVID-19 pandemic.

9 July 2020

Assessing Health Data Privacy Damages During A Pandemic

The authors discuss how increased telehealth and contact tracing could open the door to class actions related to data privacy and data breaches.

6 July 2020

Cornerstone Research Staff Review New U.S. Vertical Merger Guidelines

The DOJ and FTC were responsive to comments received during the public comments process.

23 June 2020

Healthcare Merger Analysis

As the COVID-19 pandemic take its toll on the economy, there are anticipated forthcoming litigation challenges—particularly for healthcare mergers.

How can we help you?

For more information or assistance with a specific matter, please contact us.